​How are minerals named and classified?
Nearly 4000 minerals have been names and 30 to 50 new ones are identified each year. Minerals are placed into categories in much the same way as plants and animals are classiefied by biologist. Mineralogist use the term mineral species for a collection of speciments that exhibit similar internal structures and chemical compositions. Some common mineral species are quearz, calcite, galena and pyrite.

mineral specier are usually assigned to a mineral class based on their anions or anion complexes. Some f the important mineral classes inglude the silicates, carbonates, halides, and sulfates. MIneral classes are furhter divided into groups based on similarities in atomic structures or compositions.

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Major Mineral Classes


Only 8 elements make up the bulk of rock-forming minerals and represent over 98% of the continental crust. These elements in order of abundance are oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Silicon and Oxygen are the most comon elemnts in earth crust these two elements readily combine to form the framework fot he most dominant mineral class, the silicates.
Silicates- contains the elements oxygen and silicon.

Independent tetrahedra- in nature the simplest way to become neutral compounds is through the addition of positively charged ions
Other Silicate structures- One reason for the great veriety of silicate mierals is the ability of the silicate anion to link together in a varity of configurations.
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Common Silicate Minerals
​The feldspars are b far the most plentiful silicate group comprising more that 50 percent of earths crust. Quartz the second most abundant mineral in the continental crust, is the only common mineral made completely of silicon and oxygen. they light silicates are generally light in color and have a specific gravity of about 2.7 which is considrably less that the dark silicates.
Feldspar Group is the most common mineral group, can form undre a wide range of temperatures and pressures, a fact that partially accounts for its abundance.

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