​Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. Because the oceans consist of saltwater, this occurs at about -1.8 °C (28.8 °F).
Sea ice may be contrasted with icebergs. Icebergs are compacted snow and fresh water

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Sea ice is formed when water freezes because of the low temperatures.


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Artic vs antartic
they both differ because of the different geography, Moreover, the Arctic is a semi-enclosed ocean, almost completely surrounded by land. As a result, the sea ice that forms in the Arctic is not as mobile as sea ice in the Antarctic.

albedo is an object which can measure of how strongly it reflects light from light sources such as the Sun. It is defined as the ratio of total-reflected to incident electromagnetic radiation.

albedo and sea ice
The albedo of polar regions varies from that of open water to that of new snow, and encompasses the entire range of albedos found on the surface of the planet.

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albedo and sea ice vs open water
The albedo for different surface conditions on the sea ice range widely, from roughly 85%of radiation reflected for snow-covered ice to 7% for open water. These two surfaces cover the range from the largest to the smallest albedo on earth. In the other hand open water is water that is unprotected, exposed and influenced by a variety of dangerous environmental conditions.

forces acting on sea ice - circulation
the five principal forces for sea ice formation are: wind, ocean currents, coriolis force, internal ice stress and sea suface tilt.
Wind is the primary force responsible for ice motion, particularly at the timescale of days or weeks. The wind blowing on the top surface of the sea ice results in a drag force on the ice surface and causes the ice to drift.
Ocean current force typically acts in the opposite direction of the wind force and acts as a drag on the wind-driven sea ice motion. Currents are an important factor in longer term monthly to yearly ice motion
Coriolis force causes objects to accelerate because of the rotation of the earth it is small at scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers, but it does affect processes that occur at the global scale, such as ocean currents, winds, and ice motion.
Internal ice stress is a measure of the compactness, or strength, of the ice.

Sea Surface Tilt sveral factors contribute to differences in the ocean surface level, including uneven heating, salinity variations, and currents, especially near coastal regions or ice shelves. Differences in surface level result in sea-surface tilt, a force that influences the ice motion. This force is quite small compared to wind and current forces and is not important over periods of several days. However, over longer periods of months or years, sea-surface tilt can have a noticeable effect on sea-ice motion
external image heattrap_thumbb.gifexternal image Jones-1.jpgSea ice in climate
Sea ice has a bright surface, so much of the sunlight that strikes it is reflected back into space. As a result, areas covered by sea ice don't absorb much solar energy, so temperatures in the polar regions remain relatively cool

Global conveyour belt is the the part of the large-scale ocean circulation that is driven by global density





The impact of fish populations surrounding
GREENLAND due to the influx of fresh water from melting ice caps.​
​One of the main problems in Greenland is that the ice caps are melting down and the fresh water is going to the ocean, which makes multiple changes in the animal's habitat. This problem is increasing day by day because of global warming. Since 1950's scientist have postulated that the ice sheet covering the greenland may actually conceal three separate island land masses that have been bridged by glaciers over the last geologic cooling period which means that not only one land mass is melting away but three of them are. The following graph explain how is all this cycle formed.
Ice-albedo feedback process (map/graphic/illustration)
Ice-albedo feedback process (map/graphic/illustration)
The impact of fish populations surrounding greenland due to the influx of fresh water from melting ice caps connects to the problem of climate change, because it shows the changes that the ocean and the aquatic population is suffering because of the influx of fresh water in the oceans. A perfect example of this problem is the migration of starfish, crayfish and sea, they are migrating to this part of the world because of they are very sensitive to temperatures changes, which implies that they must move from their actual habitats in order to survive. The big changes in the oceanic water is due to global warming which could be drawing unfamiliar fishes to the region because of the increasment of fresh water in the region, this could also be responsible for the spike in fresh fish seen off Greenland. Environmentalists and many climate scientists fear that if the climate heats up fast enough and melts off the remaining polar ice rapidly, the influx of freshwater could disturb ocean currents enough to drastically change the weather on the land, and it would be a problem for Greenland habitants and also for the whole environment and animals living near by.